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Disease Nutrition Analysis

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Apoorv Sharma
Information Technology
ABESIT INSTITUTEOF Technology
GHAZIABAD

Devanshu Pandey
Information Technology
ABESIT INSTITUTEOF Technology
GHAZIABAD

Deepti Singh
InformationTechnology
ABESIT INSTITUTEOF TECHNOLOGY
GHAZIABAD

1. ABSTRACT


D.N.A (Disease Nutrition Analysis ) is an application based on artificial intelligence and machine learning which can estimate the amount of nutrition you are in taking from the junk food items and how it can affect the disease . Many people are depended on junk food to eat and not on healthy meals cooked at home but if we wish for a nutritive diet from junk food then there are some very specific food items for lunch or dinner meals. We must have the knowledge in regard to the amount of requirement from various nutrients like Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, we are in taking from food which we are included in our diet.
Basically in today’s life there are most of people depending upon junk food in India in middle class specifically those who live alone in metro city and those who are unmarried who eat at least one meal from the outside instead of home almost every day which is not good for health because our health is degrading resulting in an increase of all diseases and low immunity so it is very important to take are of your nutrition and take care of your food and have the right awareness for what you are eating. This application is created by testing 80% of data and 20% of execution. This project will be created with the help of Data Visualization and Web analytics from which we take the data and create a dataset from which our program will execute. And to give the data on how junk food effect health of a person and disease.

Introduction
2.1 Nutrition


Nutrition is the process of taking in food and converting it into energy and vital nutrients required for life. Nutrition is about eating healthy and balanced diet. Food and drinks provide the energy and nutrients you need to be healthy. Nutrition is important not only in growth and development of humans and ani als but also in prevention and treatment of disease.
Nutrition is also fundamental to the maintenance of good health and functionality. Nutrition is also known as a balancing wheel of energy of our body which maintain energy level of our body by providing a proper value of carbohydrate , fate , vitamins and many more nutrients . Health maintenance include no communicable disease prevention and
treatment as well as weight management. The role that food components , particularly novel ingredients , contribute to health maintenance requires. Nutritional deficiencies associated with pregnancy may induce disturbances between the generation of free oxygen radicals and production of antioxidants that scavenge free radicals , thus being a sociated with poor immune response to infection.

2.2 JUNK FOOD


Junk Food is defined as “any food, which is low in essential nutrients and high in everything else in particular calories and sodium. Junk foods contain little or no proteins, vitamins or minerals but are rich in salt, sugar, fats and are high in energy (calories). Highly salted like chips, high in refined carbohydrates (empty calories) like candy, soft drinks and high in saturated fats like cake and chocolates .Junk food is unhealthy food that is high in calories from sugar or fat , with little dietary fiber, protein , vitamin , minerals or other important forms of nutritional value. It is also known as HFSS(high in fat , salt and sugar). Eating junk food on regular basis can lead to an increased risk of obesity and chronic disease , diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and some cancers.


Major Contents in Junk Food
Carbohydrates:

The free sugar content has generally been found to be high in carbonated beverages and desserts offered by the fast food chains.


Fats:

Junk foods like potato chips, burgers, pizza, fried chicken etc. have high fats content. The link between saturated fat and trans-fat and increased risk of heart disease is well established. There is also evidence that the risk of type 2 diabetes is directly associated with consumption of saturated fat and trans-fat and inversely associated with polyunsaturated fat from vegetable sources.

Trans Fat:

It is the common name for unsaturated fat with trans-isomer (E-isomer) fatty acid(s). Trans fatty acids (TFA) are the geometrical isomers of monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids having at least one non-conjugated,(interrupted by at least one methylene group), carbon-carbon double bond in the trans configuration rather than the more common cis configuration.

Salt:

The amount of dietary salt consumed is an important determinant of blood pressure levels and overall cardiovascular risk. Salt intake should not be more than 6 g per person per day.


2.3 Nutritional Analysis of Junk Food


Junk food contain high levels of sugars, salt and trans fats. High levels of trans fats are a public health concern due to its association with Chronic heart diseases. The trans-fat content was highest in French fries (8.1% of total fat) followed by instant noodles (4.6% of total fat) and potato chips (4.5% of total fat).
The salt content was highest in Instant noodles (3.7 g per 100 g of sample). Consumption of a packet of instant noodles, therefore, will cover about half of the daily salt quota.
The provision of nutritional information is currently not a legal requirement unless a claim is made. None of the takeaway foods like pizzas burgers, fries and potato chips provide nutritional information on the product packs.
Here is some data of companies and their products that how much they are containing nutrition (Energy, Protein , Carbohydrate, Sugar ,Fat ,Trans Fat).

 Table 1( Table contain brand and their nutrition )

2.4 Nutrition Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

● COVID-19, a disease caused by a novel coronavirus, became a major global human threat that has turned into a pandemic. Coronavirus is one of the major pathogens that mainly targets the human respiratory system.
● The nutritional status of individuals has for long been considered as an indicator of resilience against destabilization.
● Specific nutrients or nutrient combinations may affect the immune system through the activation of cells, modification in the production of signaling molecules, and gene expression.
● Nutritional deficiencies of energy, protein, and specific micronutrients are associated with depressed immune function and increased susceptibility to infection. An adequate intake of iron, zinc, and vitamins A, E, B6, and B12 is predominantly vital for the maintenance of immune function .

2.5  Impact of JUNK FOOD on BODY WEIGHT

The rates of overweight and obesity have increased tremendously over past few decades as a health epidemic in most of the part of  the world. High consumption of junk food contributes to the overweight among School-aged children in India from 9.7% to 13.9% over a decade. The potential  adverse  effects on weight  status in younger  population include Physical  inactivity  and unhealthy  dietary ha11bits and consequently , the future health of adults.[1]

2.5.1 Reason behind Preference for Fast Food: Fast food companies are targeting young children with great promotion strategies, delicious recipes and attractive advertisement. The important factors for giving preference of fast food include good taste, easy accessibility, increased convenience and its pocket friendly nature.

Fig 1 Fast Food  Consumed .
  • Effect of Junk Food On Disease.

2.6.1 Dengue

Dengue virus belong to the family  Flaviviridae.  Flaviviridae is the family of enveloped positive –  standard  RNA viruses  which mainly infect mammals and birds.

Dengue virus spreads in three phase :-

  •  Febrile phase
  •  Critical phase
  • Recovery phase

2.6.1.1Febrile Phase

 Patients typically develop high-grade fever suddenly. This acute febrile phase usually lasts 2–7 days and is often accompanied by facial flushing, skin erythema, generalized body ache, myalgia, arthralgia and headache.

2.6.1.2Critical Phase

Around the time of defervescence, when the temperature drops to 37.5–38oC or less and remains below this level, usually on days 3–7 of illness, an increase in capillary permeability in parallel with increasing  haematocrit levels may occur . This marks  the beginning of the critical phase. The period of clinically significant plasma leakage  usually lasts 24–48 hours.

2.6.1.3Recovery Phase

If the patient survives the 24–48 hour critical phase, a gradual reabsorption of extravascular compartment fluid takes place in the following 48–72 hours. General well-being improves, appetite returns, gastrointestinal symptoms abate, haemodynamic status stabilizes and diuresis ensues. Some patients may have a rash of “isles of white in the sea of red”. Some may experience generalized pruritus. Bradycardia and electrocardiographic changes are common during this stage.

2.6.1.4Effect of Junk Food on Dengue

In almost every Dengue case the patient suffer from excessive fluid proportion due to which the blood flow in his body gets reduced and if the patient continues with junk food and unhealthy eating habits it would result in more thickening of blood which would ultimately result in organ failure.

2.6.2 Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used for energy.

The most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.[20]

2.6.2.1Type 1 Diabetes

If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Your immune system attacks and destroys the cells in your pancreas that make insulin. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day to stay alive.

2.6.2.2Type 2 Diabetes

If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make or use insulin well. You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people. Type 2 is the most common type of diabetes.

2.6.2.3Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes develops in some women when they are pregnant. Most of the time, this type of diabetes goes away after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Sometimes diabetes diagnosed during pregnancy is actually type 2 diabetes.

2.6.2.4Effect of Junk Food on Diabetes

Diabetes occurs due to high blood sugar level and junk food directly or in directly adversely harms sugar patient because by high intake of junk food carbohydrate amount get increased in person body which results in high blood sugar level and difficulty in production of insulin  which ultimately results in digestive disorder

2.6.3  Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood.

2.6.3.1 Effect of Junk Food on Blood Pressure

Junk food usually consist of high salt and carbohydrate, fat ratio which when taken in excessive amount results in low blood flow through the intestine because the carbohydrate fat gets stuck in the intestine resulting in low blood pressure which causes organ failure in severe cases  where as caffeine present in soft drinks increases the heart beat ratio resulting in high blood pressure which causes Heart attack and Blood Stock in severe cases.

The interesting fact is that some times in severe cases of low blood pressure High sugar content  chocolates intake  increases the blood flow and maintain the normal blood flow of the body.

2.6.4HIV/AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, is a disease caused by a retrovirus known as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), which attacks and impairs the body’s natural defense system against disease and infection. HIV is a slow-acting virus that may take years to produce illness in a person.

2.6.4.1Importance of Nutrition in HIV/AIDS

Nutrition and HIV are strongly related to each other, any immune impairment as a result of HIV/AIDS leads to malnutrition, and malnutrition leads to immune impairment, worsens the effect of HIV and contributes to more rapid progression to AIDS. Thus malnutrition can both contribute to and result from the progression of HIV. A person who is malnourished and then acquires HIV is more likely to progress faster to AIDS.

2.6.4.2Effect of Junk Food On HIV/AIDS

Junk food is rich in carbohydrate and fat by which it make person tired and rest less which can immensely effect body of HIV infected person whose immune system is already week by enabling the person’s  indigestion of the food required for his betterment.

2.6.5Cancer

Cancer is a disease in which some of the body’s cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body. Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and multiply (through a process called cell division) to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

2.6.5.1 Effect of Junk Food on Cancer

Fast foods are full of salt, sugar and fat, and consuming these ingredients in high quantities is highly harmful to the human body. These foods are cured using nitrates which are present in the fast foods as preservatives or as coloring agents. Essentially even nitrates do not cause cancer themselves but under certain conditions, they change into N-nitroso compounds, which are associated with increasing the risk of developing cancers.

Fast foods are also rich in refined flours since most of these are bleached with a chemical called Chlorine. Chlorine is a known & dangerous irritant that is not safe to inhale. White flour, which is found in many processed foods has a very high glycemic rate and quickly raises the blood sugar level and insulin levels. This may lead to the development of diabetes and can help in cancer spreading since cancer cells feed on these readily available sugars.

  1. Experimental Result

The given figure 2 is the heatmap of the dataseet which is used in the testing . Heatmap give the information of the correlation between the data .

Figure 2 :- Heatmap of the dataset

The figure is a way to understand a relationship between the different nutrients which are present in the food like the relationship between protein and vitamin (fig 3).

References

  1. Ankul Singh S, Dhivya Dhanasekaran, Sarvesh Sabarathinam .Junk food induced obesity a growing threat to youngsters during pandemic- Impact of Junk food on body weight.Junk food and compromised immune system -2021
  2. Ashish Josh, Ann Gaba , Shyamli Thakur and Ashoo Grover .Need and Importance of Nutrition Informatics in India: A Perspective- Nutrition informatics (NI) . Organization, storage. Information, data and knowledge for food-and-nutrition-related problem-solving and decision-making..2021
  3. Mohammad Monir Hossain- Fast Food Consumption and its Impact on Health.- Obesity , Overweight and fast food.Non-Communicable Disease and fast food.-2020
  4. Dr Frah Naja .Nutrition amid the covid – 19- Nutrition recommendations during COVID-19 pandemic :-Global , National , Community , Individual..2020
  5. R. V. Bhavani and R. Gopinath .The COVID19 pandemic crisis and the relevance of a farm-system-for-nutrition approach – The farm system for nutrition approach. Responding to the COVID19 pandemic from a smallholder perspective.2020
  6. Robert H. Remiena , Michael J. Stirrattb , Nadia Nguyena , Reuben N. Robbinsa , Andrea N. Palaa and Claude A. Mellins. Mental health and HIV/AIDS: the need for an integrated response- How Mental Health can be effected of HIV/AIDS patient..2019
  7. Matthew N O Sadiku, Adebowale E. Shadare Sarthan M.Musa, Cajetan Akujuobi .Data Visualization- Visualization Technique Applications. .2016
  8. Jack G Zheng and Svetlana Peltsverger. Web Analytics Overview- Data collection and analysis.Collection and tracking methods. 2015
  9. American Society of Nutrition .Nutrition Research to affect food and healthy lifespan- Importance of Nutrition. Understanding the role of nutrition in health maintenance..2013
  10. Dr.Sapna Johnson , Mr Ramakant Sahu , Ms poornima Saxena. Nutritional Analysis of Junk Food- Major Content in Junk Food,Trans Fat,Carbohydrate, Salt. 2012
  11. Rajveer Bhaskar .Junk Food Impact On Health- How Junk Food effect on health. 2012
  12. Nisar Ahmad, Hina Fazal, Muhammad Ayaz, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Ijaz Mohammad, Lubna Fazal . Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts- Dengue fever can be cured with the leaves of the Carica papaya. 201
  13. Dr Nj Wiles .Junk Food diet and childhood behavioral problems -Effect of Junk Food on Child and in there behavior.2009
  14. WHO And TRD. DENGUE TREATMENT, PREVENTION AND CONTROL- Phase of Dengue And effect with its tratement.2009
  15. Dr Peter Katon .The Interaction between Nutrition and Infaction- Nutrition deficiencies effect on pregnancy and breast-feeding.HIV/AIDS and Nutrition.2008
  16. Donaldson.CANCER-Effect of not taking proper nutrition on cancer.2004
  17. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project organisation. HIV/AIDS:A Guide For Nutrition,Care and Support- Detail Of HIV/AIDS with Nutrition information.2001
  18. Python.org
  19. https://www.credihealth.com
  20. https://www.niddk.nih.gov
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Webhack Solutions is a India based Digital Marketing Company which provides all Social Media Marketing Solutions , PR and many more.
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